for cross-cultural consumer research. While the early research was fundamental in sparking the interest on cross-cultural topics, as a society and discipline we have moved beyond "negro" perceptions to a broader-based African-American culture. 11, ed. Langeard, E., M. Crousillat, and R. Weisz (1978), "Exposure to Cultural Activities and Opinion Leadership," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Arnould, Eric J. and Richard R. Wilk (1984), "Why Do the Natives Wear Adidas?" The final criterion used for selecting articles appropriate for this literature review is the requirement that the research deal with consumers and consumer behavior. Engledow, Jack L., Hans B. Thorelli, and Helmut Beck (1975), "The Information SeekersCA Cross-Cultural Consumer Elite," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. O'Guinn, Thomas C. and Ronald J.Faber (1985), "New Perspectives on Acculturation: The Relationship of General and Role Specific Acculturation with Hispanics' Consumer Attitudes," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 555-561. and Jan C. Reuijl (1985), "Advertising and Industry Sales: An Empirical Study of the West German Cigarette Market," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall), 92-98. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 771-778. 3 ed. Articles dealing with a subculture, ethnic group, or group of people with minority status were also included in the literature review. Kim, Chankon, Michael Laroche, and Annamma Joy (1990), "An Empirical Study of the Effects of Ethnicity on Consumption Patterns in a Bi-Cultural Environment," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 14, eds. An important issue to note here is that However, because of the close link between materialism and tangible goods, U.S. researchers in particular must be aware of potential ethnocentric bias when using material possessions as cultural measures. Culture, on the other hand, is not bound by national or state borders. Stayman, Douglas M. and Rohit Deshpande (1989), "Situational Ethnicity and Consumer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (September), 361-371. Hoover, Robert J., Robert T. Green, and Joel Saegert (1978), "A Cross-National Study of Perceived Risk," Journal of Marketing, 42 (July), 102-108. 5, ed. First, consumer behavior research that dealt with a country other than the U.S. was cited as cross-cultural. Gentry, James W., Patriya Tansuhaj, L. Lee Manzer, and Joby John (1988), "Do Geographic Subcultures Vary Culturally?" Kent Monroe, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 564-567. Although several studies tried to build up integrative perspectives on cross-cultural consumer researches (Douglas and Craig, 1997), no integrated model is yet found in literature. INTRODUCTION The diversity and overwhelming scope of cross-cultural consumer behavior research necessitates an integrative review of pertinent research appearing in marketing journals if the field is to progress in a systematic fashion. In an initial attempt to examine race, alienation and consumerism, Pruden and Longman (1972) contrasted high-income Anglo-Americans with low-income Mexican-Americans and African-American consumers. The self-identification measure proposed by Hirschman avoids ethnocentric bias of the researcher as might be present in determining subpopulations on the basis of language alone. Wiley, James B. and Gordon G. Bechtel (1985), "Scaling of Cross-National Survey Data," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Fate orientation, or fatalism, may be defined as "the belief that all events are predetermined by fate and therefore unalterable by man" (Gentry, Tansuhaj, Manzer, and John 1988). While this search yielded a total of 25 additional cross-cultural articles, virtually all of the citations were from different journals; hence it is reasonable to assume that the four journals surveyed adequately represent the concentration of cross-cultural consumer research. Briefly stated, cross-cultural research is a field ripe for post-positivist inquiry. In reviewing the literature, we attempted to distinguish studies of cross-national nature from those examining more specific cultural elements in the consumer behavior context. We will write a custom Essay on Hofstede’s Cultural Classification Framework and International Business specifically for you Wilkes, Robert E. and Humberto Valencia, (1985), "A Note on Generic Purchaser Generalizations and Subcultural Variations," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Summer), 114-120. Kent Monroe, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 564-567. Cross-cultural Consumer Research Trends: Beyond U.S. Subcultures. Sherry, John F. Jr. (1989), "Observations on Marketing and Consumption: An Anthropological Note," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Wallendorf, Melanie and Michael D. Reilly (1983b), "Ethnic Migration, Assimilation and Consumption," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (December), 292-302. E) cross-cultural localization . Michael J. Houston, Provo, UT:Association for Consumer Research, 403-410. Corpus ID: 168492616. (1983), for example, examined family purchases in the U.S., France, Holland, Gabon, and Venezuela, while Kim, Laroche and Joy (1990) examined the French and English subcultures in Canada. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 169-175. The all-encompassing nature of culture made the selection of research to be studied a crucial point in conducting a systematic literature review. 14, eds. �)u�eH�\Vm^]҅UD�ڼ��R@�����y�}w���*>. endobj However, the field remains ripe for additional research on explanations of cultural phenomena and impacts upon consumer behavior. eds. Understanding a country’s mother tongue will be of immense help to the marketer to know the impact of culture on consumer behavior. cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research by Newton et al. The Cross-Cultural Consumption research project is funded by an $88,000 research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research 753-760. Yet initial findings suggest that cross-culturally, a fatalistic approach to life may affect behavioral intentions which in turn influence attitudes towards brand loyalty and perceived risk (Cote and Tansuhaj 1989; Gentry, Tansuhaj, Manzer, and John 1988; Mehta and Belk 1991; Saegert, Hoover, and Tharp 1985; Stanton, Chandran, and Lowenhar 1981). Douglas, Susan P. (1987), "Emerging Consumer Markets in Japan," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Cote, Joseph and Patriya S. Tansuhaj (1989), "Culture Bound Assumptions in Behavior Intention Models," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Since the research compared France with the U.S., these articles are listed in Figure 3 under France with an "N" signifying a cross-national study. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 334-338. Belk, Russell W. and Wendy J. Bryce (1986), "Materialism and Individual Determinism in U.S. and Japanese Print and Television Advertising," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. While materialism is generally accepted to be an important cultural trait in the U.S., it does not appear that materialism expressed through tangible possessions is culturally universal (Lee 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1988). Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 59-64. Only one study prior to 1975 (Pruden and Longman 1972) examined more than one subculture simultaneously. When dealing with a subculture speaking a language distinct from the dominant culture (e.g., Hispanics in the U.S.) or as in bilingual countries (e.g., Canada) language was often used as a segmentation variable or measure of ethnicity. TY - JOUR. Subsequently, an increased value and need for goods can also be taught. Hirschman (1985), for example, examined similarities of the consumption patterns of U.S. Classifying research by country, as straightforward as it sounds, proved challenging in some cases such as in studies of ethnicity where ethnic values (such as Chineseness) were examined not in China, but in Singapore (McCullough 1986; Tan and McCullough 1985). M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 394-397. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 398-402. Ward, Scott, Thomas S. Robertson, Donna M. Klees, and Hubert Gatignon (1986), "Children's Purchase Requests and Parental Yielding: A Cross-National Study," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. The majority of cultures or countries investigated are located in the Pacific Rim or Europe. Saegert, Joel, Robert J. Hoover, and Marye Tharp Hilger (1985), "Characteristics of Mexican American Consumers," Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (June), 104-109. Both findings reiterate the rising interest and importance of cross-cultural consumer behavior research. William D. Perreault, Atlanta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, 297-301. Fairchild, Henry P. (1970), Dictionary of Sociology, Totowa, NJ: Littlefield & Adams. Hirschman (1985), for example, found similar consumption patterns among primitive cultures and U.S. subcultures. Hoover, Robert J., Robert T. Green, and Joel Saegert (1978), "A Cross-National Study of Perceived Risk," Journal of Marketing, 42 (July), 102-108. If you would like to join the Consumer Psychology & Cross-Cultural Research SIG, please contact Dr Nina Michaelidou. 2 0 obj Thompson, Craig J., William B. Locander, and Howard B. Pollio (1989), "Putting Consumer Experience Back into Consumer Research: The Philosophy and Method of Existential-Phenomenology," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (September) 133-146. Dawson and Bamossy (1990) found the "increased saliency of ownership of material goods" to be related to Calvinist idealism expressed through organized religion; thus including many cultures outside the U.S.. Tan, Chin Tiong and John U. Farley (1987), "The Impact of Cultural Patterns on Cognition and Intention in Singapore," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (March), 540-544. Yet the focus on cultural similarities and theoretical explanations may ultimately transform the culturally bound theories in consumer behavior to a field with generalizable theories. The purpose of this literature review is to review systematically cross-cultural consumer research over a twenty-year period. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1983), "Cognitive Structure Across Consumer Ethnic Subcultures: A Comparative Analysis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 699-701. in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Cross-cultural communication is a complicated but interesting subject involving consumer behavior, cultural factors and influences. 11, ed. Fairchild, Henry P. (1970), Dictionary of Sociology, Totowa, NJ: Littlefield & Adams. Consumer Behavior Topics under Cross-Cultural Examination. Second, it initially appears that the cultural value of materialism can be taught. Hirschman (1985), for example, examined similarities of the consumption patterns of U.S. Faison, Edmund W.J. Hence, the future holds promise for building additional sources of cross-cultural knowledge rooted in the foundations already established. Regardless of the dominant religion, Ger and Belk (1990) found the protestant work ethic and the subsequent increased value of material possessions to be surprisingly prevalent in Third World countries (Lee 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1987). Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 126-128. The child growing up in a society leans University Faculty of Economics Adminitrative (1974), "Family Buying Decisions: A Cross-Cultural Perspective," Journal of Marketing Research, 11 (August), 295-302. B. Anderson, Cincinnati OH: Association for Consumer Research, 98-101. McCullough, James, Chin Tiong Tan, and John Wong (1986), "Effects of Stereotyping in Cross Cultural Research: Are the Chinese Really Chinese?" Our findings suggest that cultural category analysis yields the most serviceable results when it is used prior to quantitatively oriented research instruments such as surveys or experiments. FIGURE 7 OPERATIONALIZATION OF CULTURE: ARTIFACTS Beliefs and Values as Indicants of Culture. As there are many cultures throughout the … ��+�i]�R� ԙ �q�2�b:�2hR€��C�Rm���ߖ�r�=S�t�����_^�E�۰���z����ŭ�6�X\eG�E�?��S3 Valencia, Humberto (1985), "Developing an Index to Measure `Hispanicness'," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.12, eds. Green, Robert T. and Philip D. White (1976), "Methodological Considerations in Cross-National Research," Journal of International Business Studies, 7 (Fall/Winter), 81-88. Second, it initially appears that the cultural value of materialism can be taught. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 127-129. Roth, Martin S. and Christine Moorman (1988), "The Cultural Content of Cognition and the Cognitive Content of Culture: Implications for Consumer Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol 15, ed. Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research 753-760. (1983), for example, examined family purchases in the U.S., France, Holland, Gabon, and Venezuela, while Kim, Laroche and Joy (1990) examined the French and English subcultures in Canada. The thesis for this paper stated the cultural factors that evoked consumers’ buying decision. Researchers investigating topics such as food purchasing behavior, black/white reaction to integrated advertisements, and African-American shopping behavior, for example, noted similarities and differences between the two ethnic groups, but neglected to take the next step in explaining the behavior they cited. 4, ed. After 1986, only one article examined the African-American subculture and that was in conjunction with the Hispanic and Polish subcultures (Reilly and Wallendorf 1987). Munson, J. Michael and Shelby H. McIntyre (1979), "Developing Practical Procedures for the Measurement of Personal Values in Cross-Cultural Marketing," Journal of Marketing Research, 16 (February), 48-52. 6, ed. 5, ed. Judging by the number of articles utilizing values and beliefs as operational definitions of culture, many researchers feel that the knowledge of value and belief systems is instrumental in understanding and predicting consumer behavior in cross-cultural settings (Henry 1976; Munson and McIntyre 1978; O'Guinn, Lee, and Faber 1986; Roth and Moorman 1988). We categorized the various operationalizations and grouped them as occurring (1) through language, (2) through material goods or artifacts, and (3) through beliefs or value systems. In addition to materialism previously discussed, two key valuesCfate orientation and relationship to others (including individual determinism)Creceived sufficient attention in the reviewed literature to warrant comparisons across cultures. To be certain that these are representative sources for the majority of cross-cultural consumer research, a manual and computerized search of the Social Science Citation Index from 1970-1990 was undertaken. Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 735-740. Anderson, Ronald and Jack Engledow (1977), "A Factor Analytic Comparison of U.S. and German Information Seekers," Journal of Consumer Research, 3 (March), 185-196. Michael J. Houston, Provo, UT:Association for Consumer Research, 403-410. Green, Robert T. and Eric Langeard (1975), "A Cross-National Comparison of Consumer Habits and Innovator Characteristics," Journal of Marketing, 39 (July), 34-41. 17, eds. 7, ed. We will write a custom Essay on Hofstede’s Cultural Classification Framework and International Business specifically for you In using the aforementioned selection criteria, a total of 118 articles are included in this review. Douglas, Susan P., (1979), "A Cross-National Exploration of Husband-Wife Involvement in Selected Household Activities," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. In such cases, the articles were classified by where the sample was taken. If the U.S. continues the trend toward "ethnic upsurges" as noted by Schlesinger (1991) in his book, The Disuniting of America, continued research with additional subcultures represented is warranted. 16, ed. Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 603-605. 17, eds. Once researchers began holding income constant, racial differences seemed to disappear as well as publication opportunities. Cross-cultural/national research is essential for both scholars and practitioners. Douglas, Susan P. and Christine D. Urban (1977), "Life-Style Analysis to Profile Women in International Markets," Journal of Marketing, 41 (July), 46-54. Although the country. FIGURE 3 CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF EUROPE AND MIDDLE EAST As opposed to using language as a subcultural identifier, Hirschman (1981) proposes using an emic measure of ethnicity which permits the individual to ascribe religious and cultural identity to him/herself. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 22, 1995      Pages 461-474 CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER RESEARCH: A TWENTY-YEAR REVIEW Jane Sojka, Washington State University Patriya S. Tansuhaj, Washington State University [The authors gratefully acknowledge valuable comments from Jim Gentry and three anonymous reviewers, and the editorial and graphic assistance from Kris Kilgore.] In spite of the potential for ethnocentric bias, however, two themes worth noting emerge from the current literature utilizing material goods for cultural analysis. Douglas, Susan P., (1979), "A Cross-National Exploration of Husband-Wife Involvement in Selected Household Activities," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Blacks, Italians, WASPs, and Jews with those of non-industrialized cultures. In reviewing the countries and cultures studied by consumer researchers during the last two decades, a diverse and substantial number of cultures have been investigated. Rudmin, Floyd W. (1990), "German and Canadian Data on Motivations for Ownership: Was Pythagoras Right?" Andreasen, Alan R. (1990), "Cultural Interpenetration: A Critical Consumer Research Issue for the 1990s," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Jaffe, Eugene D. and Israel D. Nebenzahl (1984), "Alternative Questionnaire Formats For Country Image Studies," Journal of Marketing Research, 21 (November), 463-471. D) cross-cultural differences . Green, Robert T., Isabella, C. M. Cunningham, and William H. Cunningham (1974), "Cross-Cultural Consumer Profiles: An Exploratory Investigation," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 12, eds. 13, ed. With the focus of cultural implications on marketing and consumer behavior, the research scope was limited to major marketing publications: Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, Advances in Consumer Research, and The Journal of Marketing. While Hirschman's work on ethnicity was initially tested on the Jewish subculture, it appears to have promise in cross-cultural and subcultural contexts (Ellis, Wallendorf, and Tan 1985; Hirschman 1983; Laroche, Joy, Hui, and Kim 1991; McCullough, Tan, and Wong 1986). Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 186-192. Clearly the study of archaeology holds promise for future investigation in consumer research. and Jan C. Reuijl (1985), "Advertising and Industry Sales: An Empirical Study of the West German Cigarette Market," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall), 92-98. Sex differences, as a moderating variable, may represent an underlying variable accounting for differing levels of material importance on a cross-cultural basis (Arnould 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1988). Cunningham, William H., Russell M. Moore, and Isabella C. M. Cunningham (1974), "Urban Markets in Industrializing Countries: The Sao Paulo Experience," Journal of Marketing, 38 (April), 2-12. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 839-846. H.K. Penaloza, Lisa N. (1989), "Immigrant Consumer Acculturation," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. As might be surmised, the topics of consumer acculturation, adoption, decision processes and diffusion are frequently examined. Davis, Harry L., Susan P. Douglas, and Alvin J. From 1975 to 1985, cross-cultural research continued to expand both in terms of the number of articles published and the diversity of subcultures investigated. PUBLICATION TRENDS (NUMBER OF ARTICLES PER YEAR). We categorized the various operationalizations and grouped them as occurring (1) through language, (2) through material goods or artifacts, and (3) through beliefs or value systems. 6, ed. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 191-196. and Xu Kuan, (1987), "Effective International Market Potential Assessment: China," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Most aspects of consumer behavior are culture-bound. J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 17-21. Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 693-701. 181-192. Cross-Cultural Consumer Behaviour. Cross-cultural/national research is essential for both scholars and practitioners. Reilly, Michael and Melanie Wallendorf (1984), "A Longitudinal Study of Mexican-American Assimilation," in Advances in Consumer Behavior, Vol. The purpose of this literature review is to review systematically cross-cultural consumer research over a twenty-year period. 14, eds. 10, ed. 14, eds. {�����Э��u�ǻO��?�}���y������Cs���t��}��wD&D^T٧�Y��LUY]i������ ����c���\��u��,�Ů��o��� K! 7, ed. H.K. research by providing empi rical evidence of how consumer-behavior styles vary. 5, ed. 14, eds. Classifying research by country, as straightforward as it sounds, proved challenging in some cases such as in studies of ethnicity where ethnic values (such as Chineseness) were examined not in China, but in Singapore (McCullough 1986; Tan and McCullough 1985). 13, ed. The team was formed in July 1998 to explore some of the issues arising from the globalization of the consumer society. Michael J. Houston, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 411-417. Hence, a phenomenological approachCwhere description exists at the level of the respondentCor a hermeneutical approachCin which cultural artifacts are examined as an embodiment of cultural valuesCwould both be appropriate (Dilthey 1972; Thompson, Locander, and Pollio 1989). Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 576-578. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 191-196. 5, ed. Schaninger, Charles M., Jacques C. Bourgeois, and Christian Buss, (1985), "French-English Canadian Subcultural Consumption Differences," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Spring), 82-92. Indeed, the term "culture" was scarcely seen in the literature until 1974 when the consumer behavior field came into its own journal and conference. Over time, not only has the number of subcultural studies increased, but the cultures being investigated have broadened in scope. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 110-118. Richard J. Lutz. Gensch, Dennis H. and Richard Staelin (1972), "The Appeal of Buying Black," Journal of Marketing Research, 9 (May), 141-148. Anderson, Ronald and Jack Engledow (1977), "A Factor Analytic Comparison of U.S. and German Information Seekers," Journal of Consumer Research, 3 (March), 185-196. Green, Robert T., Jean-Paul Leonardi, Jean-Louis Chandon, Isabella C.M. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 215-219. The focus of most cross-cultural research has been on geographic comparisons of consumers in Western countries (e.g., North America, Europe) and in non-Western ones, usually Asian countries (e.g., China, Japan, Korea, India; Han and Shavitt, 1994, Kim and Markus, 1999). To each culture, language offers an interpretative code or schema for organizing and presenting the world. Reilly, Michael and Melanie Wallendorf (1987), "A Comparison of Group Differences in Food Consumption Using Household Refuse," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (September), 289-294. 12, eds. Swagler, Roger M. (1977), "Information Patterns in Indigenous African Markets: A Lesson in Consumer Performance," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. ABSTRACT - We examined cross-cultural consumer behavior publications which have appeared in four major marketing journals and proceedings, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, and Advances in Consumer Research over a twenty-year period ranging from 1970-1990. Most aspects of consumer behavior are culture-bound. Costa, Janeen Arnold (1990), "Toward an Understanding of Social and World Systemic Processes in the Spread of Consumer Culture: An Anthropological Case Study," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 392-393. 12, eds. Kahle, Lynn R., (1986), "The Nine Nations of North America and the Value Basis of Geographic Segmentation," Journal of Marketing, 50 (April), 37-47. 13, ed. Clarke, Yvonne and Geoffrey N. Soutar (1982), "Consumer Acquisition Patterns for Durable Goods: Australian Evidence," Journal of Consumer Research, 8 (March), 456-460. We explore this through a study of cross-cultural consumer decision-making styles. In spite of the potential for ethnocentric bias, however, two themes worth noting emerge from the current literature utilizing material goods for cultural analysis. King, and L. Ring (1980), "Fashion Involvement: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Analysis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.
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